Regional Community Development News – February 6, 2012

     Multi-jurisdictional intentional regional communities are, in all cases, “Greater Communities” where “community motive” is at work at a more than a local scale. This newsletter provides a scan of regional community, cooperation and collaboration activity as reported in news media and blogs. 
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In December, Governor Cuomo announced the funding awards for Regional Economic Development Councils. Since July, ALIGN, the Buffalo-based Coalition for Economic Justice and Long Island Jobs with Justice have advocated and mobilized in coordination with community and labor allies across the state to make sure that Regional Economic Development Councils—the state’s newest job creation initiative—made a clean break from wasteful economic development practices of the past. Together, we demanded that Regional Councils come up with better strategies for creating quality jobs and community benefits for New Yorkers.
While not perfect, we are happy to share that Regional Councils have led a more robust discussion about how to better coordinate and target economic development efforts in our state. Most of the plans emphasize quality job creation in project selection criteria and performance metrics. The four winning plans (Western NY, Central NY, the North Country, & Long Island) speak ...
5140-07-00-Economic.Development.Councils, re:coordination, re:job.creation, re:development.economic
… Gulf Coast Business magazine.
When we launched the publication almost a year ago -- this is issue No. 12 -- we openly confessed an agenda: connecting the coast.
… publisher … "Our goal is to focus on the commercial synergies of coastal Alabama and Mississippi as they contribute to an expanding regional economy. Gulf Coast Business embraces the reality of the connections between our two states, and we are determined to showcase the potential they offer."
There continues to be much talk locally -- not long after two hurricanes and an oil spill -- about resilience, and the role that regionalism can play in improving it.
… the back-to-back visits by Ivan and Katrina, followed by a hard-to-even-imagine Deepwater Horizon disaster, left their scars.
… the smart business "is working just as hard today to implement their resiliency plan" even though visitors are coming back and cash flows are perking up.
And when it comes to resiliency, regionalism can help.
5140-21-00-Alabama, 5140-22-00-Mississippi, 5140-00.Gulf.Coast, re:media.magazine, re:regionalism.multistate, re:regionalism, re:resiliance
City A gets a new regional shopping center. It keeps 60 percent of the tax base created by the development and donates 40 percent to the metro tax base pool.
City B, not a magnet for commercial development, gets a share of the donated tax base.
The result: This year, 113 cities and towns were beneficiaries -- those that gained tax base from fiscal disparities -- and 68 were contributors. See the list
5140-32-11-Metropolitan.Council-Minneapolis-St.Paul, re:tax-sharing
Groups representing states and cities in the Great Lakes region on Tuesday proposed spending up to $9.5 billion on a massive engineering project to separate the lakes from the Mississippi River watershed in the Chicago area, describing it as the only sure way to protect both aquatic systems from invasions by destructive species such as Asian carp.
The organizations issued a report suggesting three alternatives for severing an artificial link between the two drainage basins that was constructed more than a century ago. Scientists say it has already provided a pathway for exotic species and is the likeliest route through which menacing carp could reach the lakes, where they could destabilize food webs and threaten a valuable fishing industry.
"We simply can't afford to risk that," … executive director of the Great Lakes Commission, which sponsored the study with the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative. "The Great Lakes have suffered immensely because of invasive species. …
5140-00.Great.Lakes, re:environment.invasive.species
Roswell Mayor Jere Wood would like to see metro Atlanta create “a unified transit system” rather than creating another planning agency that would keep the current “multitude of agencies” delivering transit services to the region.

Letter to the Editor
Gov. Nathan Deal has said that Metro Atlanta needs a unified transit system to replace the multitude of transit agencies now working independently of each other.
Unfortunately, the “Transit Governance Council” proposed by the Governor’s Task Force would not create a unified transit system, only another planning agency similar to the Atlanta Regional Commission.
We need less bureaucracy, not more.
Metro Atlanta needs a single authority to operate transit, not a multitude of agencies. A single transit authority would cost less, be more efficient, and be better positioned to make regional plans and coordinate regional service than a multitude of agencies.
MARTA, … GRTA, and … transit agencies should be merged into one transit authorit
5140-17-05-Atlanta.Regional, re:trans.authority, re:trans.transit
The Valleycrat is an endangered species.
A storied Central Valley political hybrid, the moderate-to-conservative Valleycrat stressed regional loyalty first and foremost. Party labels were secondary. Bipartisan cooperation was commonplace, particularly on farm and water issues. Cross-party personal relationships were warm or at least respectful.
Now? Not so much.
"That's gone from both parties; there's no question about it," said former San Joaquin Valley congressman John Krebs, a Democrat. "Now, the well is so poisoned."
The cost of division, experts agree, could be significant. The Valley's delegation needs cohesion because it is dwarfed by larger interests from Los Angeles and the Bay Area. Rancor and distrust weaken the region's power.
"If our people don't work together, our voice is just diluted that much more," said Joel Nelsen, president of the Exeter-based California Citrus Mutual.
Nonetheless, in the past decade, relations have frayed and partisanship has increased …
re:loyalty, re:cooperation, re:politics.bipartisan, re:politics.partisan
Our team frequently is asked to speak to communities about the Columbus region’s economic strategy called Columbus2020! A critical part of this strategy is to engage communities across the area in an all-out effort to get prepared for success. We believe strongly that success favors the prepared. The communities that have spent the time, energy and resources to position themselves with business partners when the opportunity arises will be successful. What we find is that the level of preparedness across the Columbus region is uneven, just as it is around the world. Some communities are well positioned to take advantage of opportunities, but others lag. The level of readiness depends not only on the resources individual communities have available but also on the willingness of key leadership to engage in practical, proactive economic development activities.
There are many examples of how communities are getting prepared for success:
• Taking an inventory of available buildings, …
5140-28-0X-Mid-Ohio-Columbus, re:economic.strategy , re:2020, re:leadership, re:community
Ordinarily I'm skeptical of government picking the winners when it comes to economic development. Picking winners for government business subsidies means someone else must lose.
Estes Park is one of six applicants statewide for creation of a Regional Tourism Authority. If the application succeeds, Estes Park's Elkhorn Lodge Project will be eligible for financing by a state sales tax increment.
Under the 2009 statute, the state can only approve up to two applications per year. Aurora's huge subsidy bid on behalf of Gaylord Entertainment is likely to be one winner. Gaylord proposes a large-scale convention center or hotel near DIA.
If Aurora wins, only one other application could succeed. That bothers some of the other applicants. …
Approving all the applications would be a huge loss for taxpayers.
Approving all the applications would also be contrary to the original purpose of the law. Not every project can meet the statutory criteria. …
5140-44-02-Upper.Front.Range, 5140-44-00-Colorado, re:economic.development,  re:grant, re:tourism
It’s a new year and perhaps a new age of regional economic development cooperation in Waynesboro, Staunton and Augusta County.
Elected and economic development officials ... discuss how area job creation benefits all three jurisdictions. They also heard strategies from a state economic development leader on how to maximize the cooperation and leverage the region’s assets.
When Augusta County Board of Supervisors Chairman Tracy Pyles and new supervisors Marshall Pattie and David Karaffa ran in last fall’s county elections, they spoke of the need for regional economic development efforts and for pooling of resources.
Pyles said the regional efforts are “all about having a vision and people getting along,” and he spoke of creating jobs for “our folks in Waynesboro, Staunton and Augusta County.”
Lehmkuhler said he also sensed a different attitude in the region from when he visited a few years ago. He spoke of how it is in “a locality’s best interests to partner with other localities.
5140-13-06-Central.Shenandoah, re:officials.elected.appointed, re:vision, re:cooperation
Five prominent Colleges of Veterinary Medicine located in the Western U.S. recently convened to create the Consortium of Western Regional Colleges of Veterinary Medicine. The Consortium was formed to collaborate in the advancement of initiatives critical to the future of the veterinary profession.
To ensure actions are put in place to address these priorities, representatives from each of the colleges created a regional think-tank with a commitment to action and mutual collaboration. Representatives, including the deans from Colorado State University, Oregon State University, Western University of Health Sciences, Washington State University and University of California at Davis, met in San Francisco this past October and created the Consortium to pursue set objectives.
The inaugural meeting of the Consortium was funded and facilitated by Pfizer Animal Health as part of the company’s Commitment to Veterinarians™ platform—which offers support through training and education, ...
5140-00.West, re:think.tank, re:consortium,
… Badger State Winter Games… majority of the contests are taking place this weekend.
That means we'll see new faces around town, as folks from all over Wisconsin make their way to the Wausau area to compete in alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, figure skating, curling, billiards and bowling.
We're always proud of the area when the Badger State Games come around, and we hope people who visit to compete will come back again on a non-Games weekend to enjoy Wausau's recreation, shopping and dining opportunities.
That's one of the goals of the Sports Authority, the Wausau-based organization managed by the Wisconsin Convention and Visitors Bureau to bring sporting events to town. After the Sports Authority last year bought the rights to put on the Games, this is the first time the Olympics-style competition has been locally owned.

From our perspective, the Games have a dual purpose. They attract visitors from out of town and build community here. …
5140-31-04-North.Central, re:community.building, re:community, re:editorial.opinion, re:editorial, re:authority, re:sports
The Southwest Michigan Planning Commission chose the Connecting Communities and People: The Southwest Michigan Non-Motorized Transportation Plan and Map Project as the recipient of its 2012 Graham Woodhouse Intergovernmental Cooperation Award.
The award-winning project developed a comprehenseive, regional nonmotorized transportation plan for Michigan Department of Transportation’s Southwest Region, including Allegan, Barry Berrien, Branch, Calhoun, Cass, Kalamazoo, St. Joseph and Van Buren counties.
“The Graham Woodhouse Intergovernmental Effort Award recognizes cross-jurisdictional, regional cooperation as highly valued by the SWMPC,” said John Egelhaaf, executive director of the SWMPC. “Such cooperation breeds the efficient use of limited resources, makes use of combined goal-setting and speaks to the way most see the world as nodes of regional resources. The players in this thankless process are frequently not recognized so to those who search for collaborative change …
5140-27-04-Southwestern-Kalamazoo, re:trans.walking.pedestrian.bicycle.wheeling, re:intergovernmental, re:award
Many Americans consider homeownership a key stepping stone to achieving the “American Dream.” But no societal group values homeownership more than foreign-born U.S. residents: those who have come to the country to seek a better life. Consider this: nearly 80% of foreign-born U.S. residents owned a home in 2009, according to the National Association of Realtors. With that in mind, we set out with Credit Sesame to find the makeup of each state (i.e. where do its foreign-born residents come from?), and which states are most popular among foreign homebuyers and investors.
5140-00-00-USA.United.States.of.America, re:housing
Collaboration was the watchword Tuesday at the regional summit held by the Economic Development Council for Central Illinois ….
Speakers … stressed the importance of governmental and business units working together for the region to boost economic development.
Doug Parsons, CEO of Excel Foundry and Machine, characterized his company as "the poster child for collaboration." Parsons recounted how the Pekin firm has gone from $10 million in sales in 2000 to more than $200 million in sales last year.
"EDC was the glue between all the pieces," said Parsons, relating how various units of city, township, county and state government helped push through $2.4 million in infrastructure improvements for the company to announce a $15 million expansion program that will add 100 jobs to the area's work force.
EDC president Vicki Clark stressed the importance of cooperation within central Illinois. "Our biggest competition is not with each other but other regions - and other countries."
5140-30-0x-Tri-County, re:competition, re:economic.development, re:collaboration, re:cooperation
Where most people see the Grindstone Scenic Byway, Fred Michaud sees a story to be told.
… question-is: how do people along the byway best use the 59-mile national landmark to reflect the area it runs through?
“It’s really about developing the story of the region,” Michaud, a Maine Department of Transportation policy analyst, said during a meeting of the Grindstone Scenic Byway Corridor Advocacy Group on Thursday. “What makes this place special? Why do people like to live here? What elements of the region do they want to see reflected [in the byway]?”
… Group members said they recognized that the byway is a national treasure by virtue of the National Scenic Byways Program designation.
One of only about 3,050 routes so designated nationwide and in Puerto Rico since 1992, the U.S. Department of Transportation named the road a byway in 2007 based on its archaeological, cultural, historic, natural, recreational and scenic qualities. Katahdin region leaders have worked to extend it since
5140-01-02-Penobscot.Valley, re:corridor, re:trans.corridor, re:tourism
A two-year re-branding effort involving more than 1,500 people has produced a new identity, Iowa’s Creative Corridor, for the region formerly known as Iowa’s Technology Corridor.
The new brand name and double helix logo were unveiled … event held at Kirkwood Community College.
John Lohman, a member of the Corridor Business Alliance task force that spearheaded the re-branding initiative, said Iowa’s Creative Corridor was selected to more accurately convey the region’s blend of art, science and technology. Lohman, publisher of the Corridor Business Journal, said the “Corridor” also is formally defined as the seven-county region along Interstate 380 served by Kirkwood.
Kirkwood serves Benton, Cedar, Iowa, Johnson, Jones, Linn and Washington counties. The 4,400-square-mile Iowa’s Creative Corridor is home to more than 445,000 residents, more than two dozen municipalities, multiple higher education facilities, dozens of arts organizations, … and nearly 30 Fortune 500 companies.
5140-35-10-East.Central-Cedar.Rapids, re:creativity.innovation, re:corridor, re:branding
The Birmingham City Commission held its annual long-range planning session Jan. 21, during which commissioners heard reports from various city departments on what happened in 2011 and what's in store for Birmingham in 2012.
The Planning Department had more than an hour to itself during the City Commission's planning session Jan. 21, during which it outlined its proposed plans and some of city’s top priorities in 2012. These plans include:
Complete Streets

Regional collaboration
Planning Director Jana Ecker touched on several of the initiatives and projects the city is working on with surrounding communities, particularly ways to unify the Woodward corridor through Complete Streets and mass transit initiatives.
Primarily, Ecker talked about the Woodward Avenue Action Association, a multijurisdictional planning task force that connects communities from Birmingham to Ferndale and aims to improve the quality of life in the communities along Woodward Avenue.
5140-27-01-Southeastern-Detroit, re:trans.planning, re:city
Recent headlines of a brighter economic picture have given many people hope that the economy is not in another free fall. GDP growth did tick upward in the last quarter. But for many communities the picture is enduringly dark, because unemployment rates have lagged far behind the national average for years and will likely continue to do so. … Contrary to popular belief, an educated workforce doesn't really make a difference (areas with many college grads are actually doing worse than areas with fewer) and a diversified economy does not always mean a more thriving economy. There are 216 defined metropolitan (metro) and micropolitan (micro) areas—with populations ranging from 10,000 to 4 million—that have had unemployment rates at least two percentage points higher than the national average for either 20, 10, or 5 years (see tables 1, 2, 3 - end of this article). These are America’s dead zones. Here employment growth is stagnant or non-existent and high levels of joblessness dominate
re:economy.loss, re:economy, re:employment, re:micropolitan, re:metropolitan
The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) and the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) are asking members of the public for assistance in developing Plan Bay Area, a 25-year transportation investment and land-use strategy for the nine-county region from 2015 through 2040. The agencies have created an online virtual workshop for anyone who wants to weigh in on options and trade-offs from the convenience of their computer. People can visit the online workshop at
The virtual workshop closely mirrors the format of a series of nine public forums held in January in every Bay Area county, and includes numerous opportunities to comment. Web visitors can watch several informational videos and take a few short surveys on their priorities for the Bay Area's future housing and land use development, transportation investments and policies and more. The virtual workshop will be up and running through February 15, 2012.
5140-50-05-Bay.Area-San.Francisco-ABAG, re:citizen.participation, re:SB.375
Is the Philadelphia region world class?
For that matter, what does world class mean? Is it like Philadelphia Eagles president Joe Banner calling his team the "gold standard"?
Well, the Eagles aren't in the Super Bowl, and Philadelphia isn't on many short lists as the Athens of our time.
However, a new report and multiyear effort by the Economy League of Greater Philadelphia aims high in trying to get the region to lift itself onto the world stage. The report sets out three priorities and a bunch of goals for civic and business leaders to shoot for by 2026.
Those regional priorities - educational and talent development, business growth, and infrastructure - will not surprise anyone who has read a policy paper released here over the last 25 years.
Still, the nonprofit Economy League … wants to create some urgency…
"If our companies aren't able to compete in the global marketplace, if our talent base isn't globally competitive with other regions, we run the risk of falling behind,
5140-09-07-Delaware.Valley-Philadelphia-PA-NJ, re:business, re:civic, re:greater, re:goals
United Way of Southeastern Pennsylvania and the Mayor's Office of Civic Engagement and Volunteer Service have announced the creation of the Greater Philadelphia Corporate Volunteer Council. The Council is designed to increase the impact of employee volunteer engagement in the region through collaboration of businesses and non-profits.
Business leaders in the region joined to launch the Greater Philadelphia Corporate Volunteer Council at an event Wednesday evening at Lincoln Financial Field. The event, sponsored by ARAMARK, IBM, and hosted by the Philadelphia Eagles, featured remarks from Greater Philadelphia Corporate Volunteer Council (GPCVC) Co-Chairs, Diane Melley, Director, IBM Corporate Citizenship & Corporate Affairs and Fred Maahs, Senior Director, Community Investment, Comcast Corporation; a message from Mayor Michael A. Nutter; and a welcome from Joe Banner, President, Philadelphia Eagles.
5140-09-07-Delaware.Valley-Philadelphia-PA-NJ, re:leaders, re:business, re:corporate, re:mayor, re:collaboration, re:greater
Branding is always an exciting topic to discuss, largely because we can exercise our imaginations without having to spend lots of capital money. One of the finer points about branding that Jarrett Walker touches upon in his book Human Transit is transit’s associated terminologies and nomenclature. Choosing between whether to use line or route, for example, can reveal a lot about your service or at least how you want your service to be perceived.
The most clear-cut example of this across North American transit agencies is the fact that we usually reserve “routes” for bus transit and “lines” for rail transit. Jarrett’s excerpt at Human Transit really deserves a full read:
…Lurking inside these two words, in short, is a profound difference in attitude about a transit service. Do you want to think of transit as something that’s always there, that you can count on? If so, call it a line. We never speak of rail routes, always rail lines, ...
5140-48-12-Puget.Sound-Seattle, re:branding, re:trans.rail, re:trans.transit
District officials will meet with counterparts from Maryland and Virginia to discuss the threat of rodents relocating from D.C. to neighboring states, Virginia Attorney General Ken Cuccinelli's office said Monday.
"Mayor [Vincent] Gray has agreed to convene a meeting within the next three months among representatives from the District, Virginia, Maryland and Congressman [Frank] Wolf's office," Cuccinelli said. "I want to thank the mayor for his willingness to discuss the concerns his neighbors have."
Earlier this month, Cuccinelli set off a media firestorm when he alleged during a radio interview that a little-known D.C. law -- the Wildlife Protection Act of 2010 -- could force District animal control companies to dump trapped rats into Maryland and Virginia. Conservative radio pundit Rush Limbaugh also mentioned the law, authored by D.C. Councilwoman Mary Cheh, on his broadcast, and scores of angry emails flooded Cheh's inbox.
The law, though, exempts most rodents from its purview …
5140-12-01-Metropolitan.Washington-DC-MD-VA , 5140-12-00-District.of.Columbia, re:environment, re:summit
There’s a lot to like and a lot to question in how Niagara Region’s new economic development model could look, say members of Niagara’s business community.
Regional council’s integrated community planning committee got its first look last week at the plan, which came out of a transition process to the new model. …
“At the end of the day, it is a strong proposal,” said Kithio Mwanzia, policy co-ordinator for the St. Catharines-Thorold Chamber of Commerce.
He said the chamber was pleased to see an emphasis on retaining existing businesses, which he said they’ve felt must be a key part of the model. And he praised the draft’s “clear focus on partnership.”
Asked to compare it to the existing Niagara Economic Development Corp. — which it will replace — …
The new model would make economic development an internal part of regional government. It would trim the agency down to 12 staff from the existing 19 at NEDC, and would employ contract “mercenaries” specializing in economic sectors.
5130-06-0X-Niagara, re:model, re:economic.development, re:government, re:partnership, re:partner, re:plan
The European Union has funded a new scheme to invest in video game development, as well as TV and film projects, in the Yorkshire areas of the United Kingdom.
The Yorkshire Content Fund, run by Screen Yorkshire, is looking to invest in a number of Yorkshire-based companies, and is also hoping to attract more entertainment companies to the region.
The European Regional Development Fund has invested £7.5 million ($11.9 million) in the Yorkshire Content Fund, while private sector investors have agreed to match that amount, bringing the total funding up to £15 million ($23.7 million).
1116-05-Yorkshire.and.the.Humber, 1000.EU.European.Union, re:fund, re:investment, re:technology,
Minister of agriculture and food of Belarus Vasily Kazakevich and Deputy Head of the administration of Novgorod region Alexander Filippov had signed the Protocol and cooperation. ... regional administration, according to the results of the official visit in the Novgorod region the delegation of Belarus achieved agreement on the expansion of interregional cooperation in the field of animal production, trade and investment.
Among the priority areas for collaboration identified construction on territory of Novgorod region complexes growing and fattening of cattle using Belarusian projects and technologies, the supplies from Belarus breeding cows and spermoprodukcii, the participation of enterprises in Belarus in tenders for construction of drainage facilities in the Novgorod region. Within the framework of the signed document is expected to be given on the supply of raw materials from Belarus ...
1301-0x-Novgorod, 1311-00-Belarus, re:collaboration
The Honourable Denis Lebel, Minister of Transport, Infrastructure and Communities and Minister of the Economic Development Agency of Canada for the Regions of Quebec, today announced that the Regional County Municipality (RCM) of Fjord-du-Saguenay has been granted federal funding to upgrade the quality of more than 200 kilometres of snowmobile trails in the Monts-Valin area in order to better meet the new requirements of local and visiting tourists.
"By investing in winter tourism development projects in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, like this one being carried out by the Fjord-du-Saguenay RCM, our government is showing its firm commitment to supporting the diversification of our regional economies and is contributing to job creation," said Minister Lebel.
The Monts-Valin area, which receives an average of five metres of snow every winter*, enjoys exceptional snow conditions, giving the territory a distinct competitive advantage over other North American snowmobiling sites. ...
5130-05-0x-Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, re:job.creation, re:tourism, re:sports
The Eurostat regional yearbook 2011 gives a detailed picture of a large number of statistical fields in the 27 Member States of the European Union, as well as in EFTA and candidate countries. The text of each chapter has been written by specialists in statistics and is accompanied by maps, figures and tables. A broad set of regional indicators are presented for the following 16 subjects: population, labour market, labour cost, education, health, European cities, gross domestic product, household accounts, structural business statistics, information society, tourism, land cover and land use, coastal regions, transport, science, technology and innovation, and last but not least, a
1000.EU.European.Union, study on trends in densely and thinly populated areas, re:data
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region’s aluminium industry is set to contribute 10%-11% of global output, thus growing to the stature of global aluminium destination, next to oil wealth, according to Frost & Sullivan.
The GCC possesses some great advantages such as low power cost and gas prices, favourable logistics owing to well connected airports and sea ports to all global destinations and skilled manpower supply from Asian neighbours sustaining over four decades to provide knowledge transfer to the local manpower adding to their employment opportunities, it said.
“GCC smelters are now actively engaged in downstream development to instigate local demand and value addition to primary aluminium production,” Frost & Sullivan said.
Another advantage to the GCC down stream industry is the availability of liquid metal which provides further competitive edge on production costs over other international players, according to its report.
8000.GCC-Gulf.Cooperation.Council, re:industry
The Rural Transformation Centre (RTC) set to be opened nationwide will become the nerve centre of rural communities in spurring economic activities, says Rural and Regional Development Minister …
He said the RTCs would spearhead programmes designed to integrate economic activities in an effort to improve the income of rural communities.
"The RTCs will enable the market for rural products to be expanded while exploring their export opportunities in the long run. Our goal is to generate more income for rural communities by mobilising their energy," …
RTCs will serve as centre of logistics integration, processing and distribution of agricultural products and come equipped with facilities such as banking and insurance, skills training centres, clinics and retail space.
On the setting up of pioneer RTCs in Gopeng, Perak and Wakaf Che Yeh, Kelantan, he hoped they would become a platform for rural communities to increase their income, find employment opportunities ...
8356-00-Malaysia, re:rural, re:development
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0000 - Earth
0900 - Arctic Ocean
1000 - Europe
2000 - Africa
3000 - Atlantic Ocean
4000 - Antarctica
5000 - Americas
6000 - Pacific Ocean
7000 - Oceana
8000 - Asia
9000 - Indian Ocean

"Global Region-builder Geo-Code Prototype" © 

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